Rabbi Reisman - Shabbos Hagadol - Parshas Metzora 5782
As we prepare for Pesach, Shabbos Parshas Metzora and Shabbos Hagadol the wonderful Shabbos that is now upon us.
1 – Topic – A Riddle (the question was mentioned last week).
We all know that Shabbos is holier than Yom Tov and Yom Tov is holier than Chol Hamoed. What is it that is Assur on Chol Hamoed but Muttar on Shabbos and Yom Tov and what is it that is Assur on Yom Tov and Muttar on Shabbos. As you know this year the first night of Pesach which is the first Seder is also Shabbos Kodesh. Here is a riddle. What is it that this year at the Pesach Seder you are able to do but you are not permitted to do it when the Pesach Seder is not Shabbos. In other words, Chumros for Shabbos okay, they will be publicized, however, Kulos for Shabbos, is there ever such a thing? That there could be something that is Assur on every other night of the week by the Seder except for Leil Shabbos Kodesh? Not only is there such a thing but someone sent me an email with the Shaila which reminded me of it.
The answers to what is permitted on next Friday night (Shabbos Yom Tov) but not permitted when it is just Yom Tov? The answer is we are forbidden from inviting an Akum to our Yom Tov meal. Since we don’t cook for an Akum on Yom Tov, therefore, we don’t invite an Akum to our Yom Tov Seuda because you might come to cook for him.
When Yom Tov is Shabbos you are permitted to invite an Akum to the Seder or to the Seuda. Why? What is the reason why it is Assur because you might come to cook for him, on Shabbos you are not allowed to cook anyway. On Yom Tov when you are going to cook for a Yehudi we are afraid that you might come to cook for an Akum. But when Yom Tov comes out on Shabbos there is no such fear. Therefore, L’mayseh inviting an Akum on Yom Tov is prohibited, however, a Yom Tov Shabbos it is permitted.
2 – Topic - A Second Riddle
Something that is Assur on Chol Hamoed that is Muttar on Shabbos and Yom Tov and somebody actually asked me the Shaila and I answered him. I have a gentleman who is building a house someplace up in the mountains. He has a contractor who is paid by the job not by the hour. Technically the contractor is allowed to work on Shabbos and Yom Tov. This is because he is not being told to work on Shabbos or Yom Tov, he chooses when he wants to work. However, Chazal forbade such work in a house of a Jew because people will think when they see an Akum working in the house that the Yid told him to work there, and therefore, the contractor is not allowed to work, not on Shabbos, not on Yom Tov and not on Chol Hamoed.
However, if you have a situation where you are building a home or a business in a place where there is no Yid within the Techum Shabbos (2,000 Amos) of the city in which you are building in, in such a case there is no fear that on Shabbos and Yom Tov a Yid will observe that someone is working in your house. In that type of a case where someone is building something upstate, or a different state or he is building a commercial building, somewhere outside of a Jewish community, in that case the Halacha is that contractor is permitted to work on the Jews home on Shabbos and Yom Tov because we are not afraid of Maris Ayin since there are no Jews within the Techum that might come and see it. However, on Chol Hamoed it is Assur because on Chol Hamoed there is no Techum restriction, and therefore, the Gizaira of Maris Ayin says the Shulchan Aruch, applies on Chol Hamoed even if there is no Yid in the Techum.
Therefore, the response to the email that said I am building something in such and such a place and there are no Jews within the Techum, am I allowed to build on Shabbos, Yom Tov and Chol Hamoed? Answer Shabbos and Yom Tov you are allowed to, Chol Hamoed you are not allowed to and the last days Yom Tov and Shabbos you are allowed to. This is provided of course that you are not telling him to work on Shabbos and Yom Tov. He is a contractor who chooses when to work. And so, these are two interesting riddles.
3 – Another Riddle or Two
Who do you find that is a name of a Jew, someone else who is a non-Jew and a third person who is a Ger? All three are in the Chamisha Chumshei Torah. This is a good riddle for the Pesach Seder.
The answer is the name (רעואל). (רעואל) is mentioned as one of Yisro’s names in Shemos 2:18. He is a Ger. In Bamidbar 2:14 (אליסף בן-רעואל). One of the Nesiim’s father was (רעואל) who was a Jew. If you look back at the Nesiim of Eisav you will find a (רעואל) there too in Beraishis 36:4. So this is a name that you find for a Jew, a non-Jew and a Ger.
One more riddle for which you have to know a S’if in Shulchan Aruch. How is it possible to eat one Kezayis of Kosher food and eating that Kezayis obligates you in 20 Berachos because you ate that Kezayis? The answer will be told IY”H next week.
4 - Topic – A Thought for the upcoming Chag Hamatzos which is an explanation of Sheishes Yemai Beraishis and Shivas Yemai Beraishis (A second approach).
(Ed. Note: Rebbi mentioned this Dvar Torah today which was said by Parshas Beraishis 5782 so I pasted it here).
At Kiddush, Jews the world over say (יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ, וְכָל-צְבָאָם). That expression is a corruption of the Pesukim. As you all know, (יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי) is the end of 1:31 which states (וַיְהִי-עֶרֶב וַיְהִי-בֹקֶר, יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי) and it is the end of the Parsha. The next Parsha starts 2:1 (וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ), that begins to tell the story of the 7th day. When we stand up in front of our families and proclaim (יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ) that is not correct. Imagine, if someone would get up and say in front of his Talmidim, he would be teaching them and he would get up and say Yom Hash’lishi Vayomer Elokim (וְהָיוּ לִמְאוֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם). It was the third day and Hashem said let there be heavenly bodies, he would be teaching them incorrectly. It was the 4th day on which Hashem created the sun, the moon and the stars. It says in 1:13 (וַיְהִי-עֶרֶב וַיְהִי-בֹקֶר, יוֹם שְׁלִישִׁי) and then in 1:14 (וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹקִים, יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם). For someone to get up and say (יוֹם שְׁלִישִׁי יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם) would be terrible, it would be Megaleh Panim L’torah Shelo K’halacha. It would be teaching Torah incorrectly. So why do we get up and say (יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ, וְכָל-צְבָאָם) as if it is one Posuk. It is a Davar Pele!
It is an even bigger Davar Pele because we are told by those who Darshun Simanim, that (יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם) is Roshei Teives Yud Kei Vav Kei. (יוֹם) is (י), (הַשִּׁשִּׁי) is (ה), (וַיְכֻלּוּ) is (ו) and (הַשָּׁמַיִם) is (ה). So we are saying a Remez to Yud, Kei, Vav, Kei. What kind of Remez to Yud, Kei, Vav, Kei, the Yud & Kei is part of one Parsha of the Torah (וַיְהִי-עֶרֶב וַיְהִי-בֹקֶר, יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי) and (וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם) is a new Parsha. What is the inherent connection between them as that doesn’t fill a Pshat at all?
While we are at it I would like to add a second point that needs explanation which I hope will be explained. I mentioned I believe in a past year (Ed. Note: see Parshas Yisro 5777 where Rebbi spoke out the Bais Halevi in the second piece in Beraishis starting with Vayichal) that sometimes we find that Chazal talk about Shiv’as Yemai Beraishis, the seven days of creation and sometimes Sheishes Yemai Beraishis, the six days of creation. Well is it six days or is it seven days. I understand the six days of the physical creation and Hashem created rest on the 7th day, however, it is interesting that Chazal use both expressions. Sheishes Yemai Beraishis and Shiv’as Yemai Beraishis. I would like to share with you a Yesod which I would hope would explain this.
Over the Yomim Tovim someone sent me a Sefer Chesed L’avraham which collects Divrei Torah from Gedolei Yisrael and in there on Parshas Beraishis on (יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי) these questions are not asked but there is a quote from the Amshinover Rebbe. The Amshinover Rebbe says on (יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ) that the Tachlis of a person in this world is L’hosif Min Hachol Al Hakodesh. The Tachlis of a person in the world, Hashem created a physical world for six days and then He created a day that has Kedusha, Kedushas Shabbos. We know that we have a Mitzvah of Tosafos Shabbos of adding some minutes or hours of Friday and making them be part of Shabbos. L’hosif Min Hachol Al Hakodesh. He says that is not just an incidental part of the Mitzvos of the Torah it is the Tachlis Habriya, the purpose of the Briya is that a person should come to this world and be Mosif M’chol Al Hakodesh, a person should add from time that is not set aside for Kedusha, time that is Yemai Chol for ordinary things and take some of that time and set it aside for Kedusha, for Davening, for learning and for making it part of Shabbos.
The same thing with the physical things like money. Money is a mundane thing, it is a Davar Chol. When you use it for Kedusha, like Tzedaka, or use it to teach Torah, you use it for Chesed that is Mosif Hachol Al Hakodesh, you take from Chol and you pull it into Kodesh. When you are gifted, Hashem gave you a talent, you have an ability, you are a capable person. You can use it for manufacturing elevators or pocketbooks and that is fine, that is Chol. However, when you use your talents to help a Mosad, to help a Yeshiva, to help people who need help, individuals who need help, so then you are taking your Chol talents and you are using it for Kedusha, you are using it for a Davar Kadosh. Tachlis Ha’adam of the Briya is L’hosif Hachol Al Hakodesh.
We understand (יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ). (יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי) is inherently Chol, but when it becomes Shabbos we say that we connect (יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ). We connect the 6th day, the day of Chol and attach it to Shabbos to make it part of Kedushas Shabbos.
Chazal say that G-d’s name is Yud, Kei, Vav, Kei – 4 letters. Shemos 17:16 (כִּי-יָד עַל-כֵּס קהּ, מִלְחָמָה לַיקוָק, בַּעֲמָלֵק--מִדֹּר, דֹּר). Olam Hazeh when we don’t see Kedusha, Hashem’s name is just Yud and Hei. The Vav and Hei are hidden. (יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי) is an ordinary day. (יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ) We connect the Yud, Kei to the Vav, Kei so then we take it and we are Mosif the Chol Al HaKodesh and make a whole thing. Yud, Kei always has Kedusha but now it has an extra level of Kedusha. Someone who is Mosif Mai’chol Al Hakodesh.
In the 5th Perek of Pirkei Avos we are taught (עשרה דברים נבראו בין השמשות). Halo Davar Hu, it is amazing. I once heard and I don’t know if it is a Milsa D’biduchusa or a true Vort that every Erev Shabbos everybody is rushing. Why is everyone rushing? Because on the original Erev Shabbos Hashem went Bein Hash’moshos and told His Malachim hurry up we have 10 more things to create and it is only a few minutes until Shabbos and they created these last 10 things. (עשרה דברים נבראו בין השמשות) and these are some of the greatest things of Kedusha. The (פי הארץ), the (פי האתון), a Giluy of HKB”H’s presence in this world and many other things were created (בין השמשות). Not Kavayochel that G-d was in a rush, but HKB”H made that the (בין השמשות), the connecting minutes of the 6th day to the 7th day are days of intense power of Briya, intense energy of creation. A person takes those minutes that connect Shabbos to Chol and he goes to Shul early and he is there ahead of time, and he is Mavir Sedra or he is learning, or he is helping set up the Shul for Shabbos. He is taking moments of Chol and making them Kodesh, that is the (בין השמשות) when a person can connect. So it is a beautiful idea (יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם), we declare that there are Sheishes Yemai Beraishis and Shiv’as Yemai Beraishis. We declare that we see Shiv’as Yemai Beraishis, we see the day of Kedusha as being part of the first six days of creation and we look to pull from Kedusha to Chol. We get caught up too much in our Chol.
(Ed. Note: Back to this week’s Shiur). We now live in the time of the year where Shkiya is quite late 7:30’ish around here. There are times of the year that we are Mekabeil Shabbos at 4:30. Yet we rush until Shabbos. Why? There are some Shuls that have an early Shabbos and a Zman Shabbos. Why do Shuls have two Zemanim? I will tell you the top secret reason. The reason why Shuls do it is so that an Ehrliche Yid could take one Shabbos and say I want to do something special. I will go to Shul for the early Minyan and I am going to Daven Mincha and be Mekabeil Shabbos nice and early. After Kabbalas Shabbos I will go take a Sefer and I will go and learn and get ready for Shabbos for the hour and a quarter between Plag and Shkiya. Then I will join for Maariv. Therefore, I will be doing Kabbalas Shabbos early which is an ideal. I will be Davening Maariv after Shkiya which is an ideal and I will be able to Chap a’ Rein some learning time in between. It is a wonderful idea and a great thing to try. Try it, you will like it and it will be fine. Don’t worry. Tell your wife that I will be home at 8:15. I will Daven with a later Maariv but I will go to Shul for the early Mincha. Gevaldig! What an opportunity. It is an opportunity that presents itself when Shabbos is at this time of the year.
5 – Topic – Shabbos Hagadol
What is Shabbos Hagadol? The Michtav M’eliyahu says Hagadol is a time of generosity. Gadol is Chessed. Shabbos Hagadol – it is the Shabbos before Pesach it is the Shabbos of kindness, of generosity. (לְךָ ר' הַגְּדֻלָּה). (גְּדֻלָּה) is Chessed. (הַגְּדֻלָּה וְהַגְּבוּרָה וְהַתִּפְאֶרֶת). We know the first Simanim of the Sefira are Chessed, Gevurah and Tiferes. So Chessed is Gedulah.
Rashi in Vaeschanan 3:24 on (אֶת-גָּדְלְךָ) says (זו מדת טובך). Gadol is generous. But that is the way it is by Klal Yisrael. Comes Shabbos Hagadol the generosity of Klal Yisrael in helping other Jews being able to afford a proper Pesach. Things are so expensive today. To be able to come up with a financial help for people, to help them make a Bakavadika Yom Tov. Yidden are so kind and so generous, I am sure that you are one of them. Make sure that you are one of them. Let it truly be a Shabbos Hagadol. Wishing one and all an absolutely constructive lead up to Pesach. Hope you are able to rid your homes of all types of Chometz. Chometz She’babayis, Chometz She’baleiv. We should elevate ourselves this Chodesh Nissan to become bigger, better and IY”H closer to HKB”H. A Gutten Shabbos to all!